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Plants as antimalarial agents in Sub- Saharan Africa. Although the burden of malaria is decreasing, parasite resistance to current antimalarial drugs and resistance to insecticides by vector mosquitoes threaten the prospects of malaria elimination in endemic areas. Corollary, there is a scientific departure to discover new antimalarial agents from nature. Because the two antimalarial drugs quinine and artemisinin were discovered through improved understanding of the indigenous knowledge of plants, bioprospecting Sub- Saharan Africa 's enormous plant biodiversity may be a source of new and better drugs to treat malaria.


This review analyses the medicinal plants used to manage malaria in Sub- Saharan Africa. Chemical compounds with antiplasmodial activity are described. In the Sub- Saharan African countries cited in this review, hundreds of plants are used as antimalarial remedies. While the number of plant species is not exhaustive, plants used in more than one country probably indicate better antimalarial efficacy and safety.

The antiplasmodial data suggest an opportunity for inventing new antimalarial drugs from Sub- Saharan -African flora. Determinants of antiretroviral therapy coverage in Sub- Saharan Africa. Despite global concerted efforts to provide the universal access to the ART treatment, the ART coverage varies among countries and regions. At present, there is a lack of systematic empirical analyses on factors that determine the ART coverage. Therefore, the current study aimed to identify the determinants of the ART coverage in 41 countries in Sub- Saharan Africa.

It employed statistical analyses for this purpose. Four elements, namely, the HIV prevalence, the level of national income, the level of medical expenditure and the number of nurses, were hypothesised to determine the ART coverage. The findings revealed that among the four proposed determinants only the HIV prevalence had a statistically significant impact on the ART coverage. Maternal obesity and Caesarean delivery in sub- Saharan Africa. To quantify maternal obesity as a risk factor for Caesarean delivery in sub- Saharan Africa. Multivariable logistic regression analysis using 31 nationally representative cross-sectional data sets from the Demographic and Health Surveys DHS.

Maternal obesity was a risk factor for Caesarean delivery in sub- Saharan Africa ; a clear dose-response relationship where the magnitude of the association increased with increasing BMI was observable. BMI is projected to rise substantially in sub- Saharan Africa over the next few decades and demand for Caesarean sections already exceeds available capacity. Overweight women should be advised to lose weight prior to pregnancy. Furthermore, culturally appropriate prevention strategies to discourage further population-level rises in BMI need to be designed and implemented.

Vaccination for typhoid fever in sub- Saharan Africa. Emerging data on the epidemiologic, clinical and microbiologic aspects of typhoid fever in sub- Saharan Africa call for new strategies and new resources to bring the regional epidemic under control. Areas with endemic disease at rates approaching those in south Asia have been identified; large, prolonged and severe outbreaks are occurring more frequently; and resistance to antimicrobial agents, including fluoroquinolones is increasing.

Surveillance for typhoid fever is hampered by the lack of laboratory resources for rapid diagnosis, culture confirmation and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Nonetheless, in , typhoid fever was estimated to cause incident cases and 7 deaths per , person years in sub- Saharan Africa. Efforts for prevention and outbreak control are challenged by limited access to safe drinking water and sanitation and by a lack of resources to initiate typhoid immunization. A comprehensive approach to typhoid fever prevention including laboratory and epidemiologic capacity building, investments in water, sanitation and hygiene and reconsideration of the role of currently available vaccines could significantly reduce the disease burden.

Targeted vaccination using currently available typhoid vaccines should be considered as a short- to intermediate-term risk reduction strategy for high-risk groups across sub- Saharan Africa. Challenges in biobank governance in Sub- Saharan Africa. Background Biological sample and data transfer within and out of Africa is steeped in controversy With the H3 Africa project now aiming to establish biobanks in Africa , it is essential that there are ethical and legal governance structures in place to oversee the operation of these biobanks.

4 History of Translation in India - e-Copy.pdf

Such governance is essential to ensuring that donors are protected, that cultural perspectives are respected and that researchers have a ready availability of ethically sourced biological samples. Methods A literature review of all legislation, regulations, guidelines and standard operating procedures on informed consent, confidentiality and the transfer of biological samples amongst countries in Sub- Saharan Africa was conducted.

In addition, an examination of the websites of departments of health and national ethics committees was performed. Researchers and research ethics scholars in the field in various African countries were contacted for assistance. A literature review of all studies examining participants views on issues related to biobanking in Africa was carried out and five separate studies were found. Results It was found that biobanking guidelines differ substantially across Sub- Saharan Africa regarding biobanking and often conflicted across borders. This has the potential to negatively impact collaboration.

Furthermore, the guidelines in place often do not recognise the ethical difficulties arising from the transfer of biological samples and are unsuitable to regulate biobanks. Conclusion Collaboration is necessary to ensure the success of biobanking projects in Africa. To achieve this, there should be some harmonization of guidelines across Africa which would aid in transferring biological samples across borders. These guidelines should reflect the unique ethical issues arising out of the storage and secondary uses of biological.


Biological sample and data transfer within and out of Africa is steeped in controversy With the H3 Africa project now aiming to establish biobanks in Africa , it is essential that there are ethical and legal governance structures in place to oversee the operation of these biobanks.

A literature review of all legislation, regulations, guidelines and standard operating procedures on informed consent, confidentiality and the transfer of biological samples amongst countries in Sub- Saharan Africa was conducted. It was found that biobanking guidelines differ substantially across Sub- Saharan Africa regarding biobanking and often conflicted across borders. Collaboration is necessary to ensure the success of biobanking projects in Africa.

These guidelines should reflect the unique ethical issues arising out of the storage and secondary uses of biological samples. Finally, further research into. Sub- Saharan Africa ; Report No. Sub- Saharan Africa Report, No. Sub- Saharan Africa Report No. To what extent have pri- vileges affected their attitudes?

Studies addressing the association between diabetes mellitus DM and tuberculosis TB in sub- Saharan Africa are limited. We assessed the prevalence of active TB among DM patients at a primary care clinic, and identified risk factors for prevalent TB. A cross-sectional study was conducted in adult DM patients attending a clinic in Khayelitsha, Cape Town. Among DM patients screened, the active TB prevalence was 3. Of the 13 prevalent TB cases, There were no significant differences in either fasting plasma glucose or HbA 1c levels between TB and non- TB participants.

The prevalence of active TB among DM patients was 4-fold higher than the national prevalence; suggesting the need for active TB screening, particularly if hemoptysis is reported. Our results highlight the importance of HIV screening in this older population group. Published by Elsevier B. HIV and tuberculosis in prisons in sub- Saharan Africa. Given the dual epidemics of HIV and tuberculosis in sub- Saharan Africa and evidence suggesting a disproportionate burden of these diseases among detainees in the region, we aimed to investigate the epidemiology of HIV and tuberculosis in prison populations, describe services available and challenges to service delivery, and identify priority areas for programmatically relevant research in sub- Saharan African prisons.

To this end, we reviewed literature on HIV and tuberculosis in sub- Saharan African prisons published between and , and identified data from only 24 of the 49 countries in the region. Where data were available, they were frequently of poor quality and rarely nationally representative. We identified barriers to prevention, treatment, and care services in published work and through five case studies of prison health policies and services in Zambia, South Africa , Malawi, Nigeria, and Benin.

These barriers included severe financial and human-resource limitations and fragmented referral systems that prevent continuity of care when detainees cycle into and out of prison, or move between prisons. These challenges are set against the backdrop of weak health and criminal-justice systems, high rates of pre-trial detention, and overcrowding. A few examples of promising practices exist, including routine voluntary testing for HIV and screening for tuberculosis upon entry to South African and the largest Zambian prisons, reforms to pre-trial detention in South Africa , integration of mental health services into a health package in selected Malawian prisons, and task sharing to include detainees in care provision through peer-educator programmes in Rwanda, Zimbabwe, Zambia, and South Africa.

However, substantial additional investments are. Cancer of childhood in sub- Saharan Africa. Measurement of incidence rates of childhood cancer in Africa is difficult. It is clear that, in many centres, lack of adequate diagnostic and treatment facilities leads to under-diagnosis and enumeration of leukaemias and brain cancers.

However, for several childhood cancers, incidence rates in Africa are higher than those in high-income countries. This applies to infection-related cancers such as Kaposi sarcoma, Burkitt lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma and hepatocellular carcinoma, and also to two common embryonal cancers - retinoblastoma and nephroblastoma. The data reported are the most extensive so far available on the incidence of cancer in sub Saharan Africa , and clearly indicate the need for more resources to be devoted to cancer registration, especially in the childhood age range, as part of an overall programme to improve the availability of diagnosis and treatment of this group of cancers, many of which have—potentially—an excellent prognosis.

This paper takes the view that the emergence of some trends and practices in science education mirrors the influence of the process of globalisation in Anglophone Sub- Saharan Africa. Through a literature review, an attempt is made to link science education and globalisation by answering the question: 'What influence does globalisation have on science education in countries in Anglophone Sub- Saharan Africa?

The paper concludes with a reflective end-piece calling for more case studies to help scrutinise further the influence of globalisation on science education in Sub- Saharan Africa. Constitutive hemorrhagic diseases that affect primary haemostasis are reportedly rare in sub- Saharan Africa. This study arrived to report within a Congolese family five cases of Glanzmann's thromboasthenia. The disease was first discovered with a young student who was transferred in France, who had shown a tendency to develop hemorrhages since childhood.

4 History of Translation in India - | Sanskrit | Ramayana

This tendency was enhanced following abdominal surgery to treat peritonitis. Like the other 3 cases, she had a prolonged bleeding time, albeit with normal von Willebrand factor plasma values. A 7 year old girl died following appendectomy from post-surgery hemorrhages. In this young patient, platelet aggregation could be induced only by ristocetine, all other conventional agonists failed.

The hemorrhages in the girls could be managed by cyclic administration of oestrogens and iron supplementation. Serologic analysis showed this patient to be positive for hepatitis C virus antibodies. This first description of Glanzmann's thrombo-asthenia in Blacks in sub- Saharan Africa shows the necessity of establish inter-hospital cooperation for the improvement of the management of constitutive hemorrhagic diseases in the Hematology wards.

Two major groups-young children and HIV-infected adults-suffer the great majority of these infections. In children, younger age itself, as well as malaria, malnutrition, and HIV infection, are prominent risk factors. In adults, HIV infection is by far the most important risk factor. The most common serotypes in invasive infections are Salmonella enterica serotypes Typhimurium and Enteritidis. In recent years, a specific strain of Salmonella Typhimurium, multilocus sequence type , has caused epidemics of invasive disease.

Little is known about risk factors for exposure to NTS, making the design of rational interventions to decrease exposure difficult. Antimicrobial therapy is critically important for treatment of invasive NTS infections. Thus, the emergence and spread of resistance to agents commonly used for treatment of invasive NTS infection, now including third-generation cephalosporins, is an ominous development. Already, many invasive NTS infections are essentially untreatable in many health care facilities in sub- Saharan Africa.

Several candidate vaccines are in early development and, if safe and effective, could be promising. Interventions to prevent exposure to NTS e. Cultural significance of termites in sub- Saharan Africa. The number of termite species in the world is more than , and Africa with more than species has the richest intercontinental diversity.

Colonies are composed of casts: a queen, a king, soldiers and workers. Some species of termite cultivate specialised fungi to digest cellulose. The purpose of the study was to make an overview of how termites are utilized, perceived and experienced in daily life across sub- Saharan Africa. Ethno-entomological information on termites Isoptera in sub- Saharan Africa was collected by: 1 interviews with more than people from about ethnic groups from 27 countries in the region; 2 library studies in Africa , London, Paris and Leiden.

Vernacular names relate to mounds, insects as food, the swarming, and the behaviour of termites. Swarming reproductive, soldiers and queens are collected as food. There are many different ways to harvest them. Termites can also be used as feed for poultry or as bait to catch birds and fish.


The mushrooms that grow each year from the fungus gardens on the termite mounds are eaten. The soldiers, the fungus gardens and the soil of termite mounds are used for multiple medicinal purposes. Mounds and soil of termites have numerous functions: for geochemical prospecting, making bricks, plastering houses, making pots, and for storage. Termite soil is often used as fertilizer. The act of eating soil geophagy among women, especially those that are pregnant, is practised all over Africa.

The mounds can serve as burying places and are often associated with the spiritual world, especially containing the spirits of ancestors. Termites also play a role as oracle, in superstitious beliefs, in art and literature. The following characteristics make termites so appealing: the dominance in the landscape, the social organization, the destructive power, and the provision of. Prevalence of latent TB infection and TB disease among adolescents in high TB burden countries in Africa : a systematic review protocol. Although adolescents appear to have a very high force of LTBI, their reported incidence of TB disease is less than that of their corresponding general population.

The few available studies on adolescent TB infection and disease prevalence are not sufficient to address the apparent discordance between rates of infection and disease in high TB burden countries in Africa. Therefore, we aim to perform a systematic review to examine the relationship between adolescent LTBI and TB disease, benchmarked against national TB disease burden data. This will be supplemented by a search of reference lists of selected articles for potentially relevant articles.

We will restrict our search to articles published in the English language between and among adolescents in order to obtain estimates reflective of the mature HIV epidemic in most high TB burden countries in Africa that occurred over this critical period. We will use the random-effects or fixed-effects modelling for our meta-analysis based on heterogeneity estimates.

No ethics approval is required given that this is a systematic review. For permission to use where not already. In November , a 3-day conference devoted to transfusion medicine in sub- Saharan Africa was held in Kampala, Uganda. Faculty from academic institutions in Uganda provided a broad overview of issues pertinent to transfusion medicine in Africa. The conference consisted of lectures, demonstrations, and discussions followed by 5 small group workshops held at the Uganda Blood Transfusion Service Laboratories, the Ugandan Cancer Institute, and the Mulago National Referral Hospital.

Highlighted topics included the challenges posed by increasing clinical demands for blood, the need for better patient identification at the time of transfusion, inadequate application of the antiglobulin reagent during pretransfusion testing, concern regarding proper recognition and evaluation of transfusion reactions, the expanded role for nurse leadership as a means to improve patient outcomes, and the need for an epidemiologic map of blood usage in Africa.

Specialty areas of focus included the potential for broader application of transcranial Doppler and hydroxyurea therapy in sickle cell disease, African-specific guidelines for transfusion support of cancer patients, the challenges of transfusion support in trauma, and the importance of African-centered clinical research in pediatric and obstetric transfusion medicine. The course concluded by summarizing the benefits derived from an organized quality program that extended from the donor to the recipient.

Options for diabetes management in sub- Saharan Africa with an electronic medical record system. The latter two health problems have been efficiently managed by an open source electronic medical record system EMRS in Latin America. Therefore a similar solution for diabetes in SSA could be extremely helpful. Based on a need assessment conducted in SSA a conceptual model based on the traditionally structured healthcare system in SSA was mapped into a three-layer structure.

Application modules were derived and a demonstrator programmed based on an open source EMRS. Then the approach was validated by SSA experts. A conceptual model could be specified and validated which enhances a problem-oriented approach to diabetes management processes. The prototyp EMRS demonstrates options for a patient portal and simulation tools for education of health professional and patients in SSA. The local efficiency and sustainability of the solution will, however, depend on training and changes in work behavior. Reflections on clinical research in sub- Saharan Africa.

The urgent need for new, safe and sustainable interventions against diseases that disproportionally affect the poor is finally receiving global attention and the funding landscape for development projects has significantly improved during the past decade. For the development of new drug and vaccine candidates, clinical trials have become the most important tool to assess their safety and efficacy. Recently, there has been a seismic shift in the number of clinical trials conducted in resource-limited settings. We discuss the current framework of clinical research in sub- Saharan Africa , from building product pipelines to the capacities needed for the conduct of trials according the harmonised Good Clinical Practice GCP ICH E6 guideline.

We place emphasis on clinical research in neglected tropical diseases which still frequently has to be conducted with limited financial, logistical and human resources. Given those short-comings we recommend minimum standards needed at the local, national and sponsor levels to provide GCP-compliant clinical research. Unconsummated marriage in sub- Saharan Africa : case reports. Unconsummated marriage is a condition where newly married couples are unable to achieve penile-vaginal intercourse for variable periods despite desire and several attempts to do so.

It is thought to be more prevalent in traditional and conservative religious communities where premarital sexual exposure is strictly prohibited. Most publications on unconsummated marriage have originated from North America, European and Middle Eastern countries. There have not been any such reports from sub- Saharan Africa , which is home to diverse cultures and traditions regarding premarital sex and marriage. This paper presents a sample of four cases with unconsummated marriage managed by the author in his private clinic based in the city of Nairobi Kenya, over the past five years.

Possible etiological factors and management approaches are discussed, with a review of relevant literature. Medicine sellers are widely used for fever and malaria treatment in sub- Saharan Africa , but concerns surround the appropriateness of drugs and information provided. There is increasing interest in improving their services, so we reviewed the literature on their characteristics, and interventions to improve their malaria-related practices.

Although evidence is insufficient to prove which approaches are superior, tentative conclusions were possible. Interventions increased rates of appropriate treatment, and medicine sellers were willing to participate. Interventions must be adapted to include artemisinin-based combination therapies, and their sustainability and potential to operate at national level should be further explored. Providing safe surgery for neonates in sub- Saharan Africa. Advances in neonatal intensive care, total parenteral nutrition and improvements in technology have led to a greatly improved outcome of neonatal surgery in developed countries.

In many parts of sub- Saharan Africa , however, neonatal surgery continues to pose wide-ranging challenges. Delivery outside hospital, delayed referral, poor transportation, and lack of appropriate personnel and facilities continue to contribute to increased morbidity and mortality in neonates, particularly under emergency situations. Antenatal supervision and hospital delivery needs to be encouraged in our communities. Adequate attention needs to be paid to providing appropriate facilities for neonatal transport and support and training of appropriate staff for neonatal surgery.

Neonates with surgical problems should be adequately resuscitated before referral where necessary but surgery should not be unduly delayed. Major neonatal surgery should as much as possible be performed by those trained to operate on neonates. Appropriate research and international collaboration is necessary to improve neonatal surgical care in the environment.

Experiences and perceptions of online continuing professional development among clinicians in sub- Saharan Africa. To fill gaps in knowledge and skills, effective continuing profession development CPD initiatives are needed to support practicing HCWs reach high standards of care.

A growing number of countries in sub- Saharan Africa are considering legalizing the growth of genetically modified organisms GMOs. Furthermore, several projects are underway to develop transgenic crops tailored to the region. Given the contentious nature of GMOs and prevalent anti-GMO sentiments in Africa , a robust ethical analysis examining the concerns arising from the development, adoption, and regulation of GMOs in sub- Saharan Africa is warranted. To date, ethical analyses of GMOs in the global context have drawn predominantly on Western philosophy, dealing with Africa primarily on a material level.

Yet, a growing number of scholars are articulating and engaging with ethical theories that draw upon sub- Saharan African value systems. One such theory, Ubuntu, is a well-studied sub- Saharan African communitarian morality. I propose that a robust ethical analysis of Africa 's agricultural future necessitates engaging with African moral theory. I articulate how Ubuntu may lead to a novel and constructive understanding of the ethical considerations for introducing GMOs into sub- Saharan Africa. However, rather than reaching a definitive prescription, which would require significant engagement with local communities, I consider some of Ubuntu's broader implications for conceptualizing risk and engaging with local communities when evaluating GMOs.

I conclude by reflecting on the implications of using local moral theory in bioethics by considering how one might negotiate between universalism and particularism in the global context. Rather than advocating for a form of ethical relativism, I suggest that local moral theories shed light on salient ethical considerations that are otherwise overlooked.

Federal Register , , , , Public Participation: The meeting will be open to public Sub- Saharan Africa : beyond the health worker migration crisis? Migration of skilled health workers from sub- Saharan African countries has significantly increased in this century, with most countries becoming sources of migrants. Despite the growing problem of health worker migration for the effective functioning of health care systems there is a remarkable paucity and incompleteness of data.

Hence, it is difficult to determine the real extent of migration from, and within, Africa , and thus develop effective forecasting or remedial policies. This global overview and the most comprehensive data indicate that the key destinations remain the USA and the UK, and that major sources are South Africa and Nigeria, but in both contexts there is now greater diversity. Migrants move primarily for economic reasons, and increasingly choose health careers because they offer migration prospects. Migration has been at considerable economic cost, it has depleted workforces, diminished the effectiveness of health care delivery and reduced the morale of the remaining workforce.

Countries have sought to implement national policies to manage migration, mitigate its harmful impacts and strengthen African health care systems. Recipient countries have been reluctant to establish effective ethical codes of recruitment practice, or other forms of compensation or technology transfer, hence migration is likely to increase further in the future, diminishing the possibility of achieving the United Nations millennium development goals and exacerbating existing inequalities in access to adequate health care.

In , it was estimated that approximately Limitations in the availability and access to adequate operative care require policy and planning to enhance operative capacity. Using minimum proposed surgical rates per , for 4, defined, sub- Saharan regions of Africa , country-specific and regional estimates were calculated. The total need and unmet need for operative procedures were estimated. A minimum of 1,, operative procedures were needed in for the In , there was an unmet need of , operative cases in sub- Saharan Africa with the greatest unmet need in eastern sub- Saharan Africa , and western sub- Saharan Africa , Approximately A minimum of 1.

The unmet need for operative care is greatest in eastern and western sub- Saharan Africa and will require investments in personnel, infrastructure, facilities, supplies, and equipment. We highlight the need for global planning and investment in resources to meet targets of operative capacity. TB tracer teams in South Africa : knowledge, practices and challenges of tracing TB patients to improve adherence. The current study aimed to inform the NTP by describing the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of TB program personnel involved with tracing activities.

A self-administered written questionnaire was sent to TB staff, managers and tracer team leaders to assess basic TB knowledge, attitudes and practices. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize results and the chi-squared statistic was used to compare responses of staff at facilities that participated in the TB Tracer Project tracer and those that followed standard NTP care non-tracer.

Total TB knowledge ranged from However, just over half range A patient no longer feeling sick was cited by Tracer teams were viewed as an effective means to get patients to return to treatment by Tracer team leaders reported concerns including lack of logistical support Upon patients returning to treatment at the clinic, facilities included in the TB Tracer Project were significantly more likely to discuss alternate DOTS arrangements than non-tracer facilities This study identified key components of knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding TB patient tracing activities in South Africa.

Educating patients on the essential need to complete treatment irrespective of clinical symptoms may help improve treatment adherence. Methods A self-administered written questionnaire was sent to TB staff, managers and tracer team leaders to assess basic TB knowledge, attitudes and practices. However, just over half range 50— Conclusions This study identified key components of knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding TB patient tracing activities in South Africa. Educating patients on the essential need to complete treatment irrespective of clinical symptoms may.

The U. Government and the American public need access to information on energy resources in sub- Saharan Africa. Sub-Saharan Africa mostly Nigeria produces 5 percent of the world's oil, while supplying the United States with 15 percent of our imports Energy Information Administration. In the next 10 years, sub- Saharan oil and gas will become increasingly more important to the export market. New discoveries in offshore provinces of West Africa ensure a bright future for the region. Projections indicate that increased oil production in sub- Saharan Africa will far outpace the growth of intraregional consumption, providing greater quantities of oil for export Forman, The United States needs up-to-date information about petroleum resources and the energy balance within the region to predict the future role of sub- Saharan Africa as a major oil and gas exporter.

The data required to generate the needed information are often disseminated in archives of oil companies and African geologic surveys, or in obscure publications. For these reasons, the U. Geological Survey is collecting data on sub- Saharan energy and constructing a regional energy bibliography. The team of geoscientists will assure that this information is available quickly and from a scientifically based, objective view point.

As donor assistance for health remains constrained, novel financing mechanisms are needed to augment funding domestic sources. Based on analysis of non-health sectors, we identify innovative financing instruments that could be used in the HIV response.

We analyzed peer-reviewed and grey literature published between and We examined the nature and volume of funds mobilized with innovative financing, then in consultation with leading experts, identified instruments that held potential for financing the HIV response. Four additional categories of innovative financing instruments met our criteria for future use: 1 remittances and diaspora bonds 2 social and development impact bonds 3 sovereign wealth funds 4 risk and credit guarantees.

A limited number of. Based on analysis of non—health sectors, we identify innovative financing instruments that could be used in the HIV response. We analyzed peer—reviewed and grey literature published between and To promote the Odia language, the Government decided to translate the gazetteers. For this purpose the Government constituted a selection board for appointing translators in order to prepare the Gazetteer in on July This was initiated by a committee comprising the then commissioner of Odisha, the Civil and Session Judge H.

That is why the Government agreed to publish the Gazette, the rules and regulations in Odia. Amos Sutton was the first editor of the Odia Gazette. In , Government asked Rev. Amos Sutton to translate the Acts of the Government very quickly. The Sudder Board of Revenue also approved a proposal in to translate certain books in Bengali to Odia. The Government of Bengal agreed to buy one hundred copies as recommended by Gouldsbury, Commissioner undersecretary to government to Gouldsbury, dated 18th October , No.

Throughout the 19th century with the help of the missionaries, the Government edited and published the Oriya Gazette Swaro, , and translation activities were supported by the Court of Directors in In the same year , Commissioner A. Regulations from beginning to the end suggests head of Judicial authority be authorized to select for translation into Oriya such of the Regulations and Acts of Govt. Gazette be also published in Oriya. If the expense of this work be considered too great, I would recommend that an Oriya translation of the Govt. The British language and education policy also supported the use of the vernaculars in the administration as well as education in Indian provinces.

Further, translation and its implementation in the educational level were highlighted by the Principal of the Company Control Board Charles Wood. When the translation activities flourished in the Odisha division, a few educated Odias like Gaurisankar Ray, Chatrubhuja Pattanaik, and Bichhanda Charana Pattanaik were appointed as Government translators and worked for several years with a good salary under the British government. Translation History and its Multidimensional Perspectives Translation helps in the growth of a language, literature and its cultural history in various ways. In the initial years of the British administration, the translators were appointed by the Government.

In , the translation commission was constituted in Odisha which gives the historical evidence of the translation activities and its multidimensional role in the development of the society. There were several factors which helped to neutralize the social tensions through translation, viz: 1. Religious Evangelization 2. To Introduce Modern Literary Genres, i. Writing Textbooks in various areas of knowledge 4. Preparation of Grammar and Dictionary 5.

Language Learning 6. Employment and Economic Interest 7. Language Conservation and Preservation The above-mentioned issues are significant in locating the function of Odia translation in various contexts. The philanthropic nature of the missionaries pushed Odisha towards various denominations of the missionary groups. They opened their philanthropic stations all over Odisha for their evangelical work. First, the Serampore missionaries sent preaches of the Gospel thither but on the arrival of the first missionaries from the General Baptist denominations they cheerfully relinquished the district in favour of the new labourers.

Bampton and Peggs preceded from Calcutta in the later part of January, and they landed about fifty miles from Cuttack, on February 11th, for the purpose of evangelization Sutton, , Noyes, and J. Phillips and Mrs. They committed to their activities in Odisha division in , though they had come two years earlier to Sambalpur.

The Evangelical Missionary Society started its work in due to the inspiration of Miss Gilbert, who visited Mayurbhanj in course of her missionary tour in Bengal. Right from the beginning, the missionaries were characterized by a drive to translate the Bible as a means of providing a basis for the preservation of orthodoxy and an accurate recounting of the life and teaching of Jesus. They provided vernacular grammars, dictionaries; textbooks, philological writings, and religious and non-religious texts into Indian languages for the purpose of education and administration.

The missionaries had considered it a legitimate duty to educate the natives. The missionaries started to promote vernacular literature in all aspects. Phillips, E. Hallam, J. Stubbins, J. Buckley, J. Pike, and their wives and converted Odias. Then, vernacular education, English education, special education for women were introduced and promoted by them.

They established the first printing press at Cuttack in Their main objective was to convert the natives into Christianity. Its translation and publication into Indian languages were also essential. Distributing Bibles and religious tracts among the native converts made them translate the religious stories to the native vernaculars. Various activities of the missionaries were explored by Amos Sutton.

His book on Orissa and its Evangelization clearly demonstrates their interest in learning the Odia language and thinking about its progress. Sutton , categorically said that the missionaries of Odisha should furnish every school with books in the Odia language. He recorded an important role of translation in order to serve the Government and educate the natives through their vernacular medium.

Thus did Dr. For the purpose of printing and publishing their religious texts they established a printing press at Cuttack in Sutton, , ; Patra, , which was named as Odisha Mission Press, Cuttack. The missionary activities were vividly reported in the newspaper named as Friend of India which was edited and published by Carey and his friends Marshman and Ward.

It is printed in the Oriya character and for neatness of execution is not exceeded, doing any similar brochure which has issued from the Metropolitan Press in Calcutta. It does no little credit to those to whose feelings of public spirit and Christian benevolence the district is now indebted for an efficient press. The establishment of a press in any province is an important era in its history. It is delightful therefore to contemplate the rapid increase of the means of intellectual and religious improvement through means of this mighty engine in the various and even remote provinces of this empire.

We know witness the establishment of process at the opposite extremities of the Bengal presidency through the spirited exertions of missionaries, but for whose labour those provinces might long have remained destitute of them. Looking down to the southern most of the provinces, we find a press setup in country of Orissa. The extent to which the language is used has only been discovered of late. We find that it is spoken and written through and extent country three hundred miles in breadth from the sea to one hundred miles in breadth from the sea, to one hundred miles in length west Sambalpore, and more than two hundred miles in breadth from Midnapore, where it melts into Bengalee Bengali , to Ganjam, where it meets the Teloogoo Telugu.

It was indispensable therefore to the competences of missionary operation to that kingdom that means should be provided on the spot for multiplying books in a language so extensively used. We know that a strong disposition exists in the highest quarter to provincialize the public service in Orissa.

It is the wish of Government that those who are appointed to this province should apply themselves earnestly to the acquisition of the vernacular tongue, and should more in a circle of promotion within the province itself. In this arrangement there is much wisdom. But to render it efficient, it is necessary to follow it up by the translation of all orders, which the people are required to understand and act on, into their own language, and by a liberal use of the press which has now been established in the province….. Two presses have even since been kept in operation, and a large number of useful works published, under the management of Mr W.

Brooks, Sutton, They have not neglected the preparation of a Christian literature, the translation of the bible, the printing of tracts, or the education of youth; but public preaching in all parts of the country has always been considered by them a first and chief duty. This description of Sutton states the pioneering efforts of missionaries in setting up a printing press, translating sacred texts and government treaties, school books, vernacularization of texts encouraged and promoted by the missionaries.

Newspapers, journals, and periodicals in Odia were published by them. They introduced new literary genres: prose, fiction, translation, travelogue, grammar, and dictionary in vernacular languages. Their main goal was to spread Christianity in Odisha by establishing the printing press, running literary periodicals and journals which supported them in preaching Christianity on the soil of Odisha. Their mission of proselytizing not only flourished but also helped in canonization of the Odia literature. The grammar, dictionary, journals and periodicals were introduced during the same period for evangelical and pedagogical purposes.

The modern era of Odia translation which was introduced by the missionaries sped up with their religious evangelic activities and tried to spread the western knowledge and reality of human life through the Christian literatures. The literary contributions of the missionaries represent the variety of literary compositions in Odia which were written, transcreated, and translated by them. The religious texts like the Bible, religious tracts, and religious pamphlets were translated by the missionaries and the converted Odias.

The examples of Odia Bible translations and religious tracts shed light on the translation history of Odia and its important aspects. The first Odia translation of the New Testament was published in Cox, , It was translated from the Greek sources with the help of William Carey and his translation team of Serampore. The same version of the Bible was revised and improved by Sutton in and was published from Orissa Mission Press, Cuttack. There were several versions of the Bible translation in Odia. A missionary and an activist from Odisha, Rev.

George Smith, a biographer of William Carey, mentioned that the Odia translation of New Testament was printed in and Old Testament in quoted in Arangaden, , There were several versions of the Odia Bible translation and they were revised by several translators from time to time. The translators were mostly foreign missionaries and converted Odia missionaries. He tried to make all possible corrections and John Buckley completed it in Dhall, , This version received an excellent acceptance among the native converters of Odisha Patra, , In the year , Buckley with the help of a certain native preacher, Jagu Raul published the revised version of the Old Testament.

Further, the New Testament was translated in by J. After many years i. Pike began the translation of New Testament in his own style. He was assisted by Rev. Benjamin Pradhan. In the year , the translation of the Bible work resumed under the joint responsibility of the Orissa Christian Society, British and foreign Bible Society and different missionary societies operating in Odisha.

Benjamin Pradhan, Rev. Fellows, and Rev. Pradhan was chief member of the revision committee Patra, , ; Dhall, , It was expected that this revised version of the Bible would be more readable for the native preachers. There were many religious and moral tracts translated by the missionaries that are claimed as their significant contributions which inspired the Odias to improve their literary genres.

Odia Translation of Tracts and Religious Literature Translation of religious tracts into Odia was another contribution of the missionaries. The Bible Translation Society and Tract Society of America provided funds for printing the religious gospels and tracts in native languages. The first religious tract in Odia was written by Rev. William Bampton and Rev. While coming to Odisha in , they received religious books and religious tracts from Serampore Mission Press, Calcutta for spreading Christianity among the natives.

In , tracts were distributed by the missionaries to the native people of Odisha Samantaray, , It was one of the primary duties of the missionary groups to translate and prepare the religious tracts in Odia. Most of the tracts published in Odia were translations Dhall, , Amos Sutton also composed thirty tracts; several of them in poetry to meet the requirements of the people. In the year , about 28, copies of tracts were distributed amongst the native preachers of Odisha. For the purpose of translating and publishing tracts, the American Tract society had financed dollars to Odisha missionaries.

In , the missionaries of Odisha received ninety reams of paper and one thousand dollars for printing of tracts in Odia. Name of the Tract No. Jewell Mine o Salvation 10, 3. Sermon of the Mount 5, 4. Miracle of the Christ 5, 5. Baibelara sisu 1, Selection of the Tract 2, Jagannath Tested 10, Christian Jeevani 10, True Christian 3, The publication of copies confirms the popularity of the tracts and various important social and religious themes were narrated in those tracts.

Duibee, Two Christian duibeenkara Women carita Mrityu 5. Brooks and were listed by Mishra, , These tracts are crucial for studying the development of styles of modern Odia prose and poetry. By distributing these tracts, the missionaries tried do away with the Hindu religious orthodoxy and superstitions of the common Odia people. Apart from these tracts, missionaries also translated a few literary religious texts of modern English to Odia for the purpose of pedagogy.

Translation and Writing School Books in Odia The textbook or school book preparation was one of the greatest contributions of the missionaries. The missionaries ran a school in Balasore. Only the Bible was taught there. In the year the English Charity School was established by the missionaries in Cuttack Sahu, , For the educational purposes, they translated a few English and Bengali books into Odia. The textbook writing initiated by the colonial officers with the help of the missionaries like Rev.

Amos Sutton, Rev. Phillips, W. For writing textbooks in Odia, the missionaries adopted translation as a method to prepare the school books in a short duration. The British Government also encouraged and patronized the missionaries and their textbook writing activities were appreciated. Pakenhome had requested Rev.

Amos Sutton to compile an Odia grammar book. In , Rev. Again Mr. In the process of translation the General Baptist Missionaries of Odisha tried to fulfill the want of School books in Odia. They printed and distributed a few primary school books among the Odia Schools. School, as the fittest persons for preparing the required books in the vernacular language. The Local Committee proposed that the first book should be made out of 3 little works already in use in the Govt. With reference to the grammar, the Local Committee stated that Mr.

Sutton had two works in hand, but that with neither did he feel satisfied, any they proposed to adopt one then in course of preparation by the School Pundit, subject to such alternations as Mr. Sutton might think fit to make, while it was passing through the Press. The vocabulary Mr. Sutton was willing to prepare and sent to the Local Committee a specimen which they were of opinion would answer the desired purpose. Sutton concurred in opinion that a copy of the one used in Bengal Ganitanka should be obtained and the necessary alternations made to adopt it in Orissa.

The Local Committee wished to introduce in the school a work in English and Ooriah Oriya entitled Elements of Natural Philosophy in a series of familiars dialogues on Geography, Astronomy, etc. Sutton suggested that it might possibly be enlarged and improved by any compendium by Dr. Yates, or otherwise. Sutton also had commented upon Vol. Sutton should be solicited to complete it for the Govt. In the History of Orissa, Mr. Chamberland and Minto, the Civil surgeons of Pooree Puri and Cuttack, who are compiling statistical reports of their respective districts; the only work at present printed, being a small volume of Ooriah Oriya History of about 90 pages chiefly complied from the Dig Dursun.

There was another book which Mr. Sutton suggested as suitable for the school where English and Ooriah Oriya are taught, and which the Local Committee thought well calculated to teach a proper method of translation viz, the Bakya Bolee or Idiomatic Expressions by the late Dr. Pearson and Dr. Sutton, it was mentioned, would engaged to supply this Volume in Ooriah Oriya within a year. Ditto, Mechanics into Ooriah Oriya , i. After this resolution, radical changes were seen in Odia textbook writing. Maximum Odia textbooks were prepared by Amos Sutton.

It is claimed to be first printed grammar of Oriya language Samantaray, , 15; Mahapatra, , 22; Mahapatra, , 3. The tradition of textbook writing was followed by many missionaries of Odisha. Phillips wrote Geography of Orissa and a dictionary in Santali. Phillips wrote Geography in Odia in quoted in Swaro, , Mullens, a book for native Christian women was translated into Odia from Bengali by Rev. Stubbins and published in by Cuttack Mission Press Blumhardt, , There were also several Bengali books prescribed in Odia medium schools during the same period. Rose, the first inspector of Odisha, after making a survey of the educational system had spoken in favour of improving the standard of textbooks in Odia.

He had acknowledged Odia as a separate language and not a subsidiary of Bengali. Therefore, he had expressed his gratitude to Rev. Sutton and Rev W. Lacey for their contribution towards the preparation and publication of textbooks for students quoted in Dhall, , In the context of textbook preparation, translation was adopted by the textbooks writers for supplying the school books in Odia and also the same had been followed by the Odia textbook writers.

The later was revised by W. William Miller translated J. The command over the languages helped the missionaries for preparing the textbooks, grammars and dictionaries in the vernacular languages. The government also patronized them for writing the same. On the one hand, the religious evangelization and on the other hand, their survival interests were instrumental for cooperation with the government in acting in the favour of native education and running the government without any disturbance. The grammar and dictionary writing in vernacular languages was another significant contribution of the missionaries.

Amos Sutton wrote an Odia grammar in on receiving an instruction from the British Government. Journalism and Odia Prose The sincere efforts of the missionaries were helpful to publish and edit several magazines, journals, newspapers and periodicals in Odia. William Lacey deserves the highest compliments for his sagacious editorship of the paper. Under his supervision it popularized a number of edifying stories from ancient Indian literature, conveyed brief but balanced and representative accounts of the local, state level, national and international scenario, incorporated a number of informative articles on a wide verity of geography, culture including tribal life , scientific, historical, and religious subjects and also carried a monthly calendar, result of unknowing native language and translation of fables.

Most important of all, it prepared the ground for healthy indigenous organs to develop by transmitting an awareness of the vital significance of such attempts, and by demonstrating the flexibility and precision of a nascent modern Odia prose in tackling a wide variety of themes. In the first editorial note, Lacey wrote the paper was a memorable document. This newspaper not only contained the translation of fables, but it was also a complete byproduct of translation. The role of translation in the development of journalism was one piece of evidence for positioning the vernaculars from other linguistic sources.

All these activities of the missionaries and their contributions towards the development of the Odia language, literature, culture, education, and print media were seen by the people in the light of religious conversion. The subject of religious conversion could not be accepted by the natives since they had their own religious tradition. Due to their religious orthodoxy, the Odias never preferred to access the missionary education for their children. As a result, the Bengalis dominated the British administrative services in Orissa division.

Their multilingual skill subjugated the Odia people and education in Odisha was totally monopolized by them. Implementation of Odia as the language of the court as well as the medium of education in Odisha was delayed for various reasons. Due to these reasons, Bengalis not only joined under the government of British but also tried to replace Odia by Bengali in Odisha.

Translation was considered a tool for writing of textbook during the Odia language movement. It was not only an important aspect of translation activity but also helped in the progress of Odia language and literature. In this context, these historical factors are worth discussing for finding out the themes and perspectives of Odia translations and its socio-political consequences. Though the British government emphasized the translation activities for the demand and development of native education and vernacular language in Odisha, this issue has not been systematically studied.

During the colonial period, translation played a significant role for creating literary and linguistic awareness among the Odia speakers. Another important feature of modern Odia literature is that the new literary genres evolved from the tradition of translation practices. Linguistic controversy between these two linguistic groups Odia and Bengali-was resolved to a large extend through translation. Second language or foreign language learning was initiated and practised through the Grammar-Translation GT method and also translation of various types of books encouraged the sociolinguistic debates in Odia which can be considered as an important contribution to translation.

A sociolinguistic study of any language dealing with language standardization, question of dialect versus language, a dichotomy between native and non-native linguistic expressions were made possible because of translation through the production of various literary and non-literary texts from other languages.

The above criteria of Odia translations show the visible aspects of translation and its interventions in the growth of modern Odia literature. Most languages have their own systems that develop through the processes of evolution and influences. Similar strategies are found in Odia which was privileged to come out through the practice and production of translation. There were several continuous efforts from the British officials for the development of the vernacular language, literature, and education in Odisha. At the same time the cultural and linguistic contact between Odia and Bengali institutionalized the politics of translation and its multidimensional activities very significantly.

The socio-political and cultural contact between Bengali and Odia was formed through the policy of religious preaching, trading, war, and official services. As a result all these sociological and historical events benefited them for their service and survival. In this context, Pyarimohan Acharya states that the Bengalis started settling down in Odisha beginning from the time of the Ganga Dynasty.

They began coming to Orissa in the time of the Ganga Dynasty. The last independent king of Bengal himself fled to Orissa in Puri Jagannath temple also tempted many Bengalis to come to Orissa. So it is a fact that the same emigrational attitude of the Bengalis was found during the period of Mughal, Maratha, and then British in Odisha.

The regular cultural and political encounter between Odia and other immigrants benefited in the form of linguistic conversancy and they settled down in Odisha for their livelihood and survival interests. By showing their linguistic qualification, they were appointed in various official positions under the British Government.

Significantly in 19th century, most of the higher posts in Odisha were held by Bengalis and they were very dominant because of their European knowledge and multilingual skills. All kinds of social situations gave a chance to the Bengalis for enjoying their living in Odisha under the support of British government.

The administration, education, and commerce of Orissa were all subservient to Calcutta. Because of the administration set up, the non-European Inspectors of Schools in Orissa were recruited from Bengali because of the shortage of textbooks in Oriya, textbooks were imported from Bengal, because of the Bengali textbooks, the medium of instruction, and most teachers in Government schools were Bengalis.

Phakir Mohan Senapati, the master craftsman of the realistic tradition in Indian fiction, wrote in his Atmajibanacarita Autobiography that not a single Odia was allowed to join the Public Works and Postal Departments. The Marwaris, the Kapodias, the Bhojpuris, and the Modis have taken over the trade and commerce. The Oriyas till the land and cut the paddy plants, but the Gujaratis enjoy the harvest.

The judges, the pleaders, all are foreigners. Even the clerk in the post office is not a native. Since there was no single native Odia with the required education, the Bengali and other immigrants occupied most of the teaching and administrative posts in Odisha. Their linguistic hesitation often raised the question of language replacement by using their own mother tongues. Bengalis wanted to use their mother tongue Bengali as the medium of education in Odisha.

These issues became very serious among these linguistic groups. As a result, Odia language movement started in For resolving the linguistic tension between two linguistic groups, British officials and native intelligentsia from both the sides debated and discussed seriously and regularly for their linguistic specificity. The issues like shortage of textbooks, literary texts, and linguistic independence were hotly debated by them. These issues created the linguistic consciousness among the native and non-native intellectuals and they tried to resolve this linguistic tension between the Odias and the Bengalis.

Similarly, Sambalpur and Ganjam both regions were also threatened by Hindi and Telugu speakers respectively at the same time. In and these two languages were replaced from both the regions and Odia was introduced as the language of the province. In this social context, translation brought out the literary and linguistic renaissance in Odisha. While on the one hand, translation renders one linguistic expression into another linguistic expression, on other hand, it encompasses the textual vitality with its origin and development.

The Odia language movement is a historical incident which originated and developed from a historical linguistic debate among the Odia intelligentsia, British officials, and Bengali intelligentsia. During this period of Odia language movement, translation was made possible to bring out literary canonization and sociolinguistic discussions among the people.

If we consider the pedagogical scenario of Odisha before thelanguage movement it will not be wrong to state in this regard that there were merely a few textbooks, grammars, dictionaries which were prepared by the missionaries and Bengalis. There are several causes which triggered serious debates and nationalistic sensibilities after the great famine of Odisha in The social factors triggered a massive movement against the antagonistic views exaggerated and spread by the Bengali intelligentsia on the Odia literature, language, education, and linguistics studies.

Though several scholarly writings have been published on Odia language movement in the recent years, they have not emphasized the role of translation in it. In the context of Odia and its restoration movement, the historical and political views have been explored and discussed by the scholars of Odia literature, linguistics, and history, but no remarkable steps have been taken to position the role of translation in Odia language movement which played a significant role for Odia language restoration.

The following aspects of Odia language and literature, such as linguistic authenticity, literary identity, and literary canonization evolved through the translation activities are quite silent in their discussions. So this argument tries to give a clear picture on the Odia language movement and the appearance of translation for creating an Odia identity. At the same time Odia intellectuals were involved in various literary activities including establishment of printing presses and literary societies, writing of textbooks, editing of manuscripts, publishing of journals and periodicals, newspapers, and compiling of dictionaries and grammar for creating new literary genres in Odia.

For establishing the role of translation in the Odia language movement, it is essential to discuss the historical outlines of the movement and its various aspects which have already been discussed by various scholars. Let us first discuss the causes of the Odia language movement and its relationship with translation briefly.

There are plenty of archival materials about the Odia language movement documented by the colonial officials, but a systematic study of the movement started in s first by scholars of Odia literature and then by historians. Linguists have shown their interest in it recently. The fifth chapter of his book titled Odia Bhasa Bilopa Andolana Odia Language Abolition Movement comprehensively discusses the roots of Odia language movement and its final result.

A regular conflict between the two linguistic groups Odia and Bengali continued with the support of strong archival records and historical evidence. The role of Odia and Bengali intelligentsia and British language policy has also been discussed in the same chapter. In order to establish the politics of colonial Odia language, he cites a lot of sources in viewing language consciousness beginning from the day of Paik Rebellion through the famine of Finally, it reaches the stage of Odia language movement and ends with the visible growth of modern Odia literature.

In connection with the modern Odia literature and language movement, his later writings are devoted to the forgotten chapters of language movement which have been explored with some of the additional and authentic views of previous writings; his concentration on the role of translation in Odia language movement is sidelined.

In this connection, he tries to present ample data on the growth of modern Odia literature through the process of westernization wherein the role of translation can be viewed and established. There is no doubt about his contributions which have given a lot of information about the importance of translation in the British administration. His outline obviously views the information about translation, but he never expressed in detail why and how translation created literary motivation and linguistic consciousness among the Odias.

While exploring the colonial history of Odisha, Prabhat Mukherjee has tried to provide a few historical documents in the book History of Orissa-Vol. VI published in His discussion on the Odia language movement is not systematic. His main point on Odia language does not have the strength to connect and establish the social chemistry between translation and British language policy. The linguistic tension between the Odias and the Bengalis has created a lotof interest among the historians. In his doctoral thesis titled Orissa under the British Crown , Jayakrushna Samal presents some of the new historical sources about Odia language policy and vernacular education proposed by the British government.

He has discussed the education policy of British government very clearly and systematically from the historical point of view, but his observations are restricted to the policy makers and their interests toward language planning for education as well as administration. His is silent about the role of translation either in the education system or in the growth of language and literary compositions.

Gaganendra Nath Dash has discussed in detail the Odia language movement in the s. Though his discussion contains some new pieces of historical evidence left out by Samantaray, a clear road map of the Odia language and modern the Odia literature filtered through the process of translation is absent in his writings. He has failed to establish the role of translation either in Odia linguistic discussion or in Odia language movement. At the same time, Odia grammars, dictionaries, and language readers, teaching materials have been written and published in the favour of colonial administration and vernacular education.

In fact, language teaching and learning materials had been prepared through the Grammar-Translation method, and also translation helped to prepare many bilingual dictionaries and grammar books in Odia. He tries to view the role of translation in relation to Odia language and literary growth during the period of language movement. The Education Council was ready to pay remuneration to the writers and publish the books. Four months later, the Council decided to select a series of textbooks written in English and send them to the Vernacular Class Book Department which would be responsible to translate them into local languages making appropriate changes to suit the local conditions.

However, it makes sure that the role of translation and its participation during the period of Odia language movement was strong and effective.

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But the question is who proposed various translation activities in the progress of the Odia language, education, and literature? In addition, the following statements must not be forgotten in this context, i. These statements sensitized the British officials and colonized Odia intellectuals to raise their voice against the Bengalis. During this crisis periodof Odia, the British language policy and education policy were implemented for rescuing Odia from the attack of the Bengalis. In this context, translation played a key role in development of the Odia language, education, textbook writing, literary composition, and finally all of them came together for restoration of Odia.

In this adventure, the British language policy and colonized Odia intellectuals participated for establishing the Odia language identity through translation. Evidence can be given from Odia colonial history wherein Government resolutions passed for textbook writing through translation during the period of Oriya language movement. The Great Spirit was perceived to become aware of as the divine power that created the world www.

Red Jacket, a Native American chief, spoke of it back in He orders all things, and has given us a fine day for our council. He has taken His garment from before the sun, and caused it to shine with brightness upon us www. Remain close to the Great Spirit. Show great respect for your fellow beings. Work together for the benefit of all mankind humanity.

Give assistance and kindness wherever needed. Do what you know to be right. Look after the well-being of mind and body. Dedicate a share of your efforts to the greater good. Be truthful and honest at all times. Take full responsibility for your actions www. Why not the sell the air, the great sea, as well as the earth.

Did not the Great Spirit make them all for the use of His children. How can we have confidence in the white people? When Jesus Christ came upon the earth you killed Him and nailed Him to the cross. You thought He was dead, and you were mistaken to make a bad judgment - www. America, today, is muddled caught up in materialism, and wallows to roll about in deep mud in an dearth lack of spiritual sufficiency enough for a particular purpose. Today , May 22, The cross is called American , as a first reason, because immigrants came here a century ago for a second chance, "an expectation of positive outcomes".

People may think, "God isn't fixing this Daily News , December 3, Some may wonder, how is this part of His plan? Nonetheless in spite of that , things can turn out right, in the end when everything is taken into consideration. In the days immediately after, there were public vigils a period of time when a group stays in a place and quietly waits and prayer services, human barricades to shield a line of people placed the families and students from the media onslaught barrage of communication , barbeque dinners and bake sales to raise money for victims.

Then, just as with a family in mourning, schisms began to emerge a split of a group into different sections as a result of a difference in beliefs. School board meetings grew heated lively discussion and debate. Facebook groups were created, then dissolved degenerated into arguments. A few voices called for gun control, but many more maintained that guns were not to blame. At first, the entire community will come together, she said, repeating what the mother of a boy killed at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut, had told her.

People can have a restoration a bringing back to a former position or condition of the heart a center of human emotion. This means to feel encouraged heartened, cheered up, uplifted, inspired or motivated and optimistic disposed to take a favorable view of events or conditions and to expect the most favorable outcome , again. The Book says: "If you can believe being sure of what we hope for and certain of what we do not see - all things are possible to him, or her, who believes. We're not going to live in the shadow ominous [giving the impression that something bad is going to happen] sadness or gloom [lowness of spirits] of misery heartbreak, despair or despondency any longer a thing that was once true or possible, is not now true or possible.

Jackson, XXX. We need to have a way to help these people regain recoup, retrieve and reclaim some hope Kenira Thompson, vice-president of research at Ponce [Puerto Rico] Health Sciences University. And you, have you never had a dream? I don't think so. We know it will happen again. We seem helpless to stop it. The latest nightmare began on May 18 with the news - there had been another school shooting As head of seventeen intelligence agencies, including the CIA, NSA, FBI and multiple military intelligence arms a military discipline that uses information collection and analysis approaches , [Dan] Coats oversees supervises and manages everything from domestic counterterrorism activities designed to prevent or thwart terrorist acts to foiling foreign espionage the practice of spying plots Time , June 4, The United States is not helpless , people just play too many games.

If these intelligence services would ever get their heads out of the sand you have to start paying more attention to what's going on around you , they could cut these shootings down to a minimum as low as possible. If they would, maybe something like this would not happen again. At least fifty-eight dead at least wounded, by a man who, for no immediately discernible able to be seen, recognized or understood reason, lugged carry or drag with great effort twenty-three weapons into his high-roller suite a set of rooms in a hotel for a gambler who consistently wagers large amounts of money and then rained to fall in a large amount hundreds upon hundreds of bullets into a tightly packed pressed or arranged closely together crowd Time , October 16, Gregory Bush, 51, having failed to get into a black church outside Louisville, Kentucky, went to a Kroger a very large U.

Telling a bystander a person who is present at an event or incident but does not take part that 'whites don't shoot whites', he killed two black shoppers in cold blood to kill in such a way that seems especially cruel because it seems to show no emotion , according to police. Finally, on Nov. This type of hate criminal a prejudice-motivated [wholly or partly created by hatred towards a person] crime which occurs when a perpetrator [a person who carries a harmful, illegal or immoral act] targets a victim differs from one on which criminologists the scientific study of crime as a social phenomenon, of criminals, and of penal treatment focused center of interest or activity in the late 20th century - weekend haters - groups of young men who got their kicks doing something for fun and cemented their bond a close connection joining two or more people, unlikely to change by beating up a member of a minority group or defacing mar [ruin or diminish] the appearance of a synagogue or other symbol of perceived 'otherness' the quality or fact of being different.

He is more ideological, more committed and ultimately finally, in the end more violent U. Today , December 28, Connecting bring together or into contact so that a real or notional [the nature of an idea] link is established to the Unseen , in this case when that is considered , is mandatory required by a law or rule. Recovering courage strength to venture, persevere and withstand danger and confidence a feeling or belief that you can do well after tragedy human suffering is important.

At the Borderline , a country-music bar i n Thousand Oaks, Calif. Adam Housley, a former Fox News correspondent one who contributes news or commentary , lost a niece in the shooting. He requested of his nearly , Twitter followers: "Please pray if you believe After the shooting at Borderline , many residents said they stayed up late, waiting to hear news. They went to bed physically and emotionally exhausted Thursday, only to be waked in the middle of the night by the blare a loud, harsh sound of emergency alerts from their phones and frantic knocks almost out of control because of extreme emotion at the door from neighbors.

They needed to get out, they were told Chicago Tribune , November 10, God help them. I took my kids, dogs, computer and my Doc Marten boots. Just landed back home and I had one hour to pack up gather belongings and be done with it and evacuate our home. I pray everyone is safe. Combine historic droughts and heat waves excessively hot weather with the dense fuels worse than liquid hydrocarbons and an inopportune occurring at an inconvenient or inappropriate time wind, and you don't get fires.

You get explosions an expansion in which energy is transmitted outward. You get phenomena extraordinary occurrences that are behaviorally identical the manner in which something functions or operates, which is very similar to tornadoes. But last week, fire burned the homes of rich liberals in Malibu and poor white folks unsophisticated or disadvantaged Caucasians in Paradise Calif. This not only affects makes a difference to the United States, but is global in nature the inherent character.

The [Egyptian] interior ministry says he was armed with an assault rifle, one hundred and fifty rounds of ammunition and a bomb he intended to set off at the church news24 , November 3, Officials said the death toll people who die in an accident, disaster, war, etc. Teams focused center of interest or activity their searches Monday morning in areas where a bus was immersed dipped or submerged in a liquid and where many workers were eating lunch at the mine cafeteria when the dam ruptured broke apart.

A Catholic priest for a church now being used as a command center centralized command for some purpose for rescuers persons who save from a dangerous or difficult situation said many of his parishioners are believed buried completely covered in mud. It's an open wound an injury for all the people of Brumadinho. It was in Caracas, Venezuela, and I had spent more than an hour in line in a row waiting to proceed. When I got to the register a business machine that usually has a cash drawer , I noticed I had forgotten my ID that day. Without it, the rationing system controlled distribution of scarce resources, goods or services would not let the supermarket sell my family the full quota a limited number or quantity of food.

It was four days until the government allowed me to buy more. This was fairly normal. All my life, I lived under socialism in Venezuela until I came to the United States as a student in Because of price controls government regulation establishing the maximum price to be charged and the nationalization transfer from private to state [government] ownership or control of important industries, production fell become less in number.

And the shortages lack, scarceness and undersupply went far beyond the supermarket. My family and I suffered from blackouts failure of electrical power supply. The regime nationalized electricity in , resulting in underinvestment a situation in which a company refuses to make low-risk [likely to be successful] investments in the electrical grid a network of electrical transmission lines connecting a multiplicity [a large number] of generating stations to loads [amount of electrical power that is supplied] over a wide area. Some of the most acute misery plays out every day on the streets of Maracaibo, Venezuela's second-largest city and a hub of the once-booming oil industry.

It was here in March that residents, seemingly driven to desperation by nationwide power blackouts, looted and destroyed hundreds of buildings and businesses. The destruction in Maracaibo, where blackouts were the norm long before March, defied easy understanding. The fittings of a hotel were torn out or just torn to shreds, leaving the structure littered with debris in an image reminiscent of wartime Associated Press , June 18, Come and light a candle, say a silent prayer and stand with our fellow kiwis New Zealanders.

All welcome,' the post said. Paul's Cathedral in London, said it was offering prayers during daily services for those affected by the shootings in New Zealand. People started writing supportive messages perhaps such words and quotes, as: "it's not the things we cannot control that will define our success" using the hastag TheyAreUs to signal transmit information that Muslims are welcome in New Zealand. Southers: "We must treat white supremacy extremism beliefs that most people think are unreasonable and unacceptable with the same aggressiveness determination and forcefulness and seriousness persistence and ernestness that we have applied to Muslim identity extremism certain national and ethnic rituals since And not only that, we all could use some death insurance, because we never know when our time will come.

If any person opens the door, I will come in connect to you and stay with you from Revelation. No connection, no paradise. A deception of some in the church is that the Unseen has done everything for them - that they have a get into heaven free card. It is not the case. They can go to a church, they can honor the Sacrifice of the Christ , but it does not matter. Going into a garage does not make a person a car, and going into a church does not make a person heaven bound on their way to paradise. Honoring the Sacrifice is optional, connecting is mandatory required by a law or rule.

This is why someone who attends a church three times a week can drop into eternal prison, while a Buddhist monk living out in the middle of nowhere in Tibet can go up to paradise, in the end. In the first instance, the individual didn't "get it" understand when it came to connecting. To those who wish another quote from the Book : "You will find me the Unseen , when you search for me with all your heart from Jeremiah. And maybe every so often, re-connect with a version of the Unseen , since He will let you into paradise at death. A question may be asked as to why a cross would be called American.

There are some reasons on the webpage. A second reason for the name American is that it is a spiritual Red Cross. The American Red Cross comes into disaster areas providing food, clothing, shelter. Their mission statement: "The American Red Cross prevents and alleviates makes less severe human suffering in the face of emergencies by mobilizing prepare and organize for active service the power of volunteers and the generosity of donors" But what about those whose spirit the inner quality or nature of a person has been crushed, traumatized to become very upset in a way that may lead to emotional problems by a personal tragedy a bad event which causes sadness?

A biker a person who rides a motorbike whose wife is killed on a motorcycle by a drunk driver, a parent whose young child died in a cancer ward, a homeless veteran, a mother whose child was killed in a school bus accident. Then there are American police shootings, an Egyptian church bombing, an Iranian train wreck, a New Year's Eve Turkish nightclub shooting, Italian earthquakes, a Christmastime German truck-terror attack, Chinese miner accidents, children wounded in Aleppo, Syria, North African migrants a person who goes from one place to another to find work drowning in the Mediterranean Sea.

Persons left alive, and the families of these people, who have been demoralized to cause someone to lose hope , could get heart back, or it may be harder to pick up the pieces and move on. After James Alex Fields, Jr. It has no place in America. And as I have said many times before, no matter the color of our skin, we all live under the same laws, we all salute the same great flag, and we are all made by the same Almighty God. This was regarded as Islamic terrorism, as Masood sent a final text message saying he was waging jihad in revenge for Western European and American military action in Muslim countries.

It may have been useful for Trump to have added that the neo-Nazi Fields who rammed force something his vehicle in Virginia committed an act of domestic relating to your own country terrorism. Fields had written a research paper in high school glorifying bestowing honor, praise or adoration Adolph Hitler, as some kind of a savior a person who saves from danger. When these disgusting so bad, unfair or inappropriate that you feel annoyed and angry things happen, connecting bringing together or into contact so that a real or notional [based on a suggestion] link is established to the Ancient of Days may be helpful.

There are other tragedies very bad events that cause great sadness closer to home. Sheryl Sandberg, who is chief operating officer at Facebook , had her fifty-year-old husband die recently due to a heart attack. She writes, in Option B : "In the early weeks after Dave died, I was shocked - I ran into friends at local parks who talked about the weather.

The weather has been weird with all this rain and death. I thought about carrying around a stuffed elephant, but I wasn't sure that anyone would get the hint a slight or indirect suggestion. Until we acknowledge it, the elephant is always there. By ignoring it, those in pain isolate to remain alone or apart from others themselves and those who could offer comfort create distance to make far off instead.

Getting heart back , in these situations, is priority 1. A definition of heart is that place within a person where feelings or emotions are. Getting heart back means to have more courage or confidence in a positive outcome of events - to cheer up cause to feel happier. People who have lost everything in a natural catastrophe an event causing great and usually sudden damage or suffering may have the same dilemma a usually undesirable or unpleasant choice.

When a lawnmower a machine used for cutting the grass from the sky struck the tiny island of Barbuda in the Caribbean on September 6, - Hurricane Irma - people had an experience of loss physical, emotional, or especially economic harm or damage sustained. The monster category 5 hurricane which swept through here last Wednesday has transformed the idyllic isle an island that is picturesque in its natural simplicity a former haunt to visit often of the late Princes Diana - into a ghastly terrifying horrible , apocalyptic an event that causes a tremendous amount of damage scene.

Maurice George, a visual arts art forms such as ceramics, drawing, painting or sculpture teacher at Barbuda's secondary school, spoke of his 'horrific' ordeal a difficult or painful experience causing shock as Irma unleashed its fury turn loose unrestrained energy in the early hours of 6 September.

The year old said he was forced to flee his father's house during the eye of the storm a calm region at the center of a hurricane as the winds and rain began to rip off the roof. We had to dodge elude or evade wires and lamp posts to get to my cousin's house,' he said www. Elessa Harris, twenty-two, said she knew this storm was different when she saw her 'roof being lifted up by the winds'. In panic a sudden strong feeling of fear she fled to a neighbors' home as winds of up to miles per hour buffeted knock or push something roughly from side to side the eastern Caribbean island.

She emerged rose or appeared from a safe place on Wednesday to a changed world - her entire village had been destroyed. There is no running water, and telephone service is out after the communications tower was literally snapped broken under intense pressure in half L. Times , September 7, But material items are not the only things people need. During the Vietnam War, two soldiers were wounded and sent to a base hospital a military hospital situated at some distance from the area of active operations during a war.

One, who did not have life threatening injuries injuries involving a substantial risk of death , died. The other, who was at the point of death a limit beyond which a specified life form cannot survive , lived. In that situation, as with anything else, not losing heart can make all the difference in the world the greatest degree of difference that is possible or conceivable.

Puerto Rico also got hit hard, with almost all electricity knocked out, as well as running water to half the population. Ramon Rivera, a heavy equipment operator who works for the municipality of Alibonito, and who owns land there, said that he "blamed the island's economic problems on corrupt officials who had enriched themselves on public-works projects, and compared them to Catholic priests who abused their parishioners The New Yorker , October 18, More than 22, persons were in attendance at the time. President Trump spoke from the White House on October 2.

Last night a gunman opened fire on a large crowd at a country music concert in Las Vegas, Nevada. He brutally cruelly, violently and completely without feelings murdered more than fifty people and wounded hundreds more. It was an act of pure evil. We ask God to help see you through this very dark period. Scripture a passage from the Bible teaches us the Lord is close to the brokenhearted and saves those who are crushed in spirit. We seek comfort in those words, for we know that God lives in the hearts of those who grieve.

In times such as these, I know we are searching for some kind of meaning in the chaos a total lack of organization , some kind of light in the darkness. The answers do not come easy. But we can take solace help and comfort when you are feeling sad or worried knowing that even the darkest space can be brightened by a single light and even the most terrible despair can be illuminated to help clarify or explain by a single ray of hope.

We pray an earnest request or wish for the day when evil is banished condemned to exile - sent completely away and the innocent are safe from hatred and from fear. Due to social media social networking and microblogging through which users create online communities , et. With the carnage the killing of a large number of people at a theater in Aurora, Colo. The hero who stopped the slaughter a killing in a cruel or violent way at the Waffle House was a year-old African American, James Shaw, Jr. Current laws allow just about any deeply disturbed a very upset emotionally, and often needs special care or treatment young man to obtain an AR or similar military-style assault rifle David Waters in the Memphis Commercial Appeal , April 25, Everything you can fix, can fall apart," said Dr.

These deranged unable to think and behave normally people will watch Hollywood's wonderful inspiring delight action movies, wherein the hero a person admired for brave acts will track down find someone after looking for a long time those he feels he needs to render justice to, and annihilate complete destruction in absolute cold-blood deliberately cruel or callous , with no remorse deep regret for a wrong committed whatsoever - and then deceive themselves, after observing Hollywood's finest, into thinking they can do it too.

The question is - does the civilian public persons not belonging to the armed forces or police really need to run around town with military-style weapons? Most of us can watch these movies, enjoying them, and know well not to do these things because we will go to prison for life, at best. Which brings out Part II. These individuals who committed these horrendous extremely bad or unpleasant crimes had severe mental problems, to the point of being deranged.

Half the problem is getting rid of "Hollywood-style" weapons, and Part II is dealing with sociopaths and psychopaths who manage to get ahold of guns and go on the rampage a course of violent, riotous or reckless action or behavior. The general public may have to become more aware having knowledge or perception of a situation or fact of strange behavior and report it, before it spirals out of control changes very quickly, and in an uncontrolled way.

The United States has become very good at disrupting interrupt the progress of terrorist plots from Muslim extremists, but what about our own homegrown belonging to one's own particular country extremists? When are Americans going to start exercising the same diligence earnest and persistent application of effort on our own people that we wish to apply to Muslims. They come from rural outposts a small community situated in a remote part of a country and from big cities, from Democratic strongholds a place where a particular belief is strongly upheld to the reddest regions Republican administrative areas of Trump Country.

They have different religions, income levels and ethnicities. What they share is the agony that comes with losing a child to gun violence in a place where that child was supposed to be safe. The reality in America is that there are always more dead kids. There are always more devastated to cause severe and overwhelming shock or grief families. Mass shootings firearms-related violence involving four or more people make headlines a text indicating the nature of the article below it.

But that attention cuts both ways something that has two effects - a good and a bad , says Sandy Phillips, whose year-old daughter Jessi was shot with eleven others at a cinema in Aurora, Colo. But that attention fades. You can't. It's a pain you can't outrun you can't focus on what you were - what you've went through has shaped you, but it doesn't define you. According to the Secret Service : "Because these acts are usually planned over a period of time, and the attackers often elicit concern of the people around them, there exists an opportunity to stop these incidents before they occur.

This over a work-related human resources issue.

In Florida, a year-old girl was arrested after several parents told authorites she threatened to attack a school. In Wisconsin, a man was charged with making terrorist threats after telling a fellow employee he wanted to shoot up the workplace. It is the increase of prescription and non-prescription opioid drugs in the United States and Canada in the s. Opioids are a diverse very different class of fairly strong painkillers, including oxycodone commonly sold under the trade names OxyContin and Percocet , hydrocodone Vicodin , and a very strong painkiller, fentanyl , which is synthesized the production of a substance by the union of chemical elements to be similar to other drugs such as opium-derived morphine and heroin.

What the U. Surgeon General has called The Opioid Crisis likely began with over-prescription of opioid pain relievers in the s, which caused them to become the most prescribed advise and authorize the use of class of medications in America. It has also left thousands of children suddenly in need of foster care a system in which a minor has been placed into a ward, group home, or private home after their parents have died from an overdose.

Fentanyl, a newer synthetic opioid painkiller, is fifty to a hundred times more potent than morphine and thirty to fifty times more potent than heroin, with only 2mg two milligrams or. It is pure, white, odorless and flavorless, with a potency strong enough that police and first responders some designated or trained to respond to an emergency helping overdose victims have themselves overdosed by simply touching or inhaling a small amount. As a result, the DEA Drug Enforcement Administration has recommended that officers not field test to test in actual situations drugs if fentanyl is suspected, but instead collect and send samples to a laboratory for analysis.

The U. Attorney for Ohio stated: 'One of the truly terrifying things is the [fentanyl] pills are pressed apply pressure to flatten, shape or smooth and dyed to look like oxycodone. If you are using oxycodone and take fentanyl not knowing it is fentanyl, that is an overdose waiting to happen.

Each of those pills is a potential overdose death. This means fifty-five dead per day. That's an average of one hundred and fifteen opioid overdose deaths each day CNN , May 27, Time dedicated an entire edition, March 5, to the crisis. There would be an army here trying to stop it. That's exactly precisely where we are with opioids. But who's showing up arriving for an appointment to stop it? I've been here for eleven and a half years, and it declined downhill, slump or plunge. The poverty level's pretty bad. It's every day.

And it doesn't seem like it's getting any better. You get a thick skin tough, hardened or hard-boiled over time - either you get it, or it's going to eat you alive being completely destroyed eventually.

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You kind of become cold unemotional or glacial [a person who is icy] to seeing somebody overdose. As an officer, you bury it away hide something, so others cannot find it. A lot of us do that. That's how we cope deal effectively with something difficult. Your emotional attachment concern, care and liking to that person that you don't know is, you don't have one there isn't any. It becomes easy to talk about the drug, and not talk about the person, to say, Yeah, just another one. But seeing the families that are affected influenced or touched by an external factor , actually seeing them on the scene someone has become an important part of a situation , trying to care for their loved ones or friends.

And the things that they do to try to revive restore to life or consciousness them, and they can't, and they're waiting on us or the medics to get there. To see that, to see the children involved, the heartache emotional anguish [severe mental pain] , it's overwhelming you do not know how to deal with it ' - Walter Bender, Montgomery County deputy sheriff. You need to get over here right now. I can't even describe to you what it's like to hear those words,' Kennecke said. Kennecke, an investigative reporter with South Dakota CBS affiliate KELO, has covered the act of reporting about an event or subject the opioid crisis for about ten years.

She lost her daughter to the epidemic about four months ago and when she returned to work earlier this week, she shared her personal story to let what has occurred in your life be the foundation [the underlying basis or principle] not the focus [a center of interest or activity] - the focus needs to be on lessons [a useful piece of information learned through experience] gained, the gifts that you now have to share. And over the course of my career I have asked so many parents to talk to me and just people in general who are grieving deep mental suffering often endured alone and in silence who have had horrible, tragic things happen to them I have an obligation duty, commitment or responsibility to talk about it.

My number one reason for talking about it is to erase the stigma a mark of disgrace that is surrounding circumstances, conditions or things around an individual addiction, especially the use of heroin, opioids,' Kennecke told CBS This Morning on Friday CBS News , September 7, Websites openly advertise the synthetic opioid, offering customer service by email, bulk purchase discounts to encourage individuals to purchase goods in large quantities and shipping guarantees, according to a report by the Senate Permanent Subcommittee of Investigations USA Today , September 27, The Shanghai-based network people with the same interests sold synthetic narcotics created using Man-made chemicals , including deadly fentanyl, on websites posted in thirty-five languages, from Arabic and English to Icelandic and Uzbek.

The Chinese syndicate bragged that its laboratory could synthesize nearly any drug and that it churned out produce at a rapid rate sixteen tons of illicit forbidden by law chemicals a month. The group was so adept very skilled or proficient at smuggling move goods illegally into a country , and so brazen bold and without shame in its marketing action or business of promoting or selling products , that if offered a money-back guarantee to buyers if its goods items for sale were seized by U.

Fentanyl, fifty times more potent than heroin , and related laboratory-crafted drugs, have become the 1 cause of opioid-related overdose deaths a dangerous dose causing a decease. Nearly 29, people died last year in the United States from overdoses linked a relationship between two situations to synthetic opioids, a category that experts say is dominated by fentanyl and its chemical cousins - a staggering surge an astonishing, astounding or stupefying amount from the such deaths reported in That also means it can be smuggled through the mail in which officials call 'micro-shipments' small amounts of freight that are far harder to identify and interdict prohibit or forbid than bulkier loads of large size for its weight of heroin, cocaine or marijuana.

Fentanyl was developed decades ago as an ultra-powerful painkiller - a hundred times more potent having great effect than morphine - for use in surgery. It is still used to help hospice-level providing care for the terminally ill cancer patients. Drug dealers began dabbling dip your toe into a specific subject in the drug in the mids, but it surged a sudden and great increase in popularity in and because it was easy to obtain and hugely profitable. Fentanyl is a favored painkiller a drug for relieving pain because it acts fast.

But it's also eighty to a hundred times more potent than morphine. Fentanyl abuse first became a problem some twenty-five to thirty years ago, way before it started being mixed with heroin, says Dr. Fentanyl, Capretto explains, was originally invented to relieve pain is often injected to force a liquid into a person's body with a syringe in patients prior to surgical procedures. The synthetic opioid can also be prescribed in a lozenge a small usually sweetened and flavored medicated material or patch a disk-shaped piece of material that is worn on the skin and contains a drug that is absorbed at a constant rate through the skin and into the bloodsteam to treat the severe pain associated with metastatic the spread of cancer from a primary site to other places in the body , colon the large intestine and pancreatic malignant cells found in the tissues of the pancreas [produces digestive juices which regulate blood sugar] cancer.

You'd hear of them getting it in the operating rooms by drawing out fentanyl from vials a small container, made of glass, used for holding liquid medicines and putting saline a liquid mixture of salt and pure water in its place. That was pretty bad, he says, but even more dangerous is mixing heroin and fentanyl. Today, drug dealers are adding fentanyl to heroin because it creates an intense high. Between and , more than U.

Seizures capturing a thing using force of drugs containing the painkiller jumped from to between and In March, the DEA issued a warning on fentanyl as a 'threat to public health and safety'. The combination of two drugs makes users feel drowsy, nauseated a feeling of sickness with an inclination to vomit and confused, but also euphoric characterized by or feeling intense excitement and happiness.

The euphoria probably hits a lot faster when fentanyl is mixed with heroin, says Dr. Abenstein, president of the American Society of Anesthesiologists. It's that super-quick potency of fentanyl that makes it dangerous. The rehab physician recently treated a heroin addict who tried fentanyl for the first time and overdosed. Debase means to "reduce the quality or value of something". Haroon Moghul, CNN , commented: "The hundreds of millions of Muslims who reject extremism must start building out real institutional alternatives to extremism.

As an African American I ask, what should our response have been? Should we have painted all white Christians with the same broad brush of racism and bigotry due to the actions of a radical segment who also called themselves Christians? Michael E. Or what about this. Should we paint with a "broad brush" the whole Christian Church because years ago a radical element, certain Christians sanctioned to officially allow or accept by the church, went on Crusades slaughtering tens of thousands of innocent people.

They would burn entire European towns to the ground. The justification the act of showing something to be right for the Crusades comes, perhaps, from Deuteronomy - "The Lord delivered him before us; and we smote to kill or severely injure him, and his sons, and all his people.

And we took all his cities and utterly destroyed the men and women, and the little ones children , of every city, we left none to remain [alive]. They found this. This data covered all manners of death, including homicide, accident and suicide. According to the U. State Department, the number of U.